With few local exceptions, until 1545, Christian marriages in Europe were by mutual consent, declaration of intention to marry and upon the subsequent physical union of the parties. The couple would promise verbally to each other that they would be married to each other; the presence of a priest or witnesses was not required. This promise was known as the "verbum." If freely given and made in the present tense (e.g., "I marry you"), it was unquestionably binding; if made in the future tense ("I will marry you"), it would constitute a betrothal.
Reference: Wikipedia- Marriage - Europe
Very few Australians appreciate that in western tradition marriage started as a secular function.
Marriage had no uniform religious or other ceremony and was essentially seen as a private matter until CE 325. Even with Christianity’s spread across Europe and the whole of life immersed in a Christian context, it was not until 1545 the presence of a priest or witnesses became required. It was sufficient there be mutual consent, freely given and the couple make a promise verbally to each other. This promise (known as the "verbum") when made in the present tense such as “I marry you” was indisputably binding.
From the Middle Ages, the function of the churches was to record marriages although this was not mandatory.
Many Protestant countries had state involvement in marriage by the 17th century. Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act 1753 required a formal ceremony of marriage in England and Wales to address the problem of clandestine marriage, although that Act did not apply to Quakers or Jews.
Civil marriages as a legal alternative to church marriages followed with the Marriage Act 1836. This law permitted the marriage declaration before an official of the civil administration and allowed an optional private clerical marriage ceremony.
So marriage in Australia comes down to us, with its key civil component influenced by the Christianity.
Each state and territory was responsible for regulating marriage until 1961 when it was agreed that the Commonwealth bring Australia marriage under one uniform piece of legislation.
Prior to 1961 marriage was the responsibility of the different state and territories and their laws had evolved mainly along the same lines, as had been the case in England.
However basically Sir Barwick continued the existing rights of the clergy (Subdivision A celebrants) and the registry offices (Subdivision B celebrants) to provide marriage services.
Subsequently Justice Lionel Murphy used a provision in the Act for “other Fit & Proper persons” (Subdivision C celebrants) to establish Australia’s unique and highly successful civil marriage celebrant program. This provision originally was envisaged to be used only by a minimal number ‘lay clergy’ of the Jewish faith and thus neither detailed nor structured in a consistent form within the Act.
Many aspects of our Marriage Act are based upon the English Marriage Acts of 1753 and 1836.
For example, our Marriage Act Section 45 was originally drafted from the Marriage Act 1836 and requires couples of Commonwealth marriage celebrants, mostly independent civil celebrants to say: “I call upon the persons here present to witness that I, A.B. (or C.D.), take thee, C.D. (or A.B.), to be my lawful wedded wife (or husband)” or words to that effect.
This wording is now almost two century’s old and in need of modernising into plain English.
Couple being married by Subdivision A Recognised Religious celebrants are not required to say these words, unless they are in the approved wording of the particular church's marriage rite. Some religious ceremonies do not require that the parties to the marriage actually say anything. Their attendance at the ceremony is considered sufficient for consent.
Major changes to the Marriage Act in 2003 with regard to the appointment and review of Commonwealth Marriage celebrants were intended to acknowledge the evolving profession of civil celebrancy and to bring this subdivision more in line with the 'professional' principles of appointment and regulations of the other two subdivisions of celebrants.
These were to be
- a high standard of celebrant training based upon guidelines set in 1995 prior to appointment
- a complaint mechanism for couples
- a Celebrant Code of Practice
- regular performance review
- a requirement for annual ongoing professional development,no specific time limits on appointments and
- strong conflict of interest provisions
Conflict of Interest reforms were designed to ensure that celebrants would “be unable to have an interest in other wedding related business” thus ensuring celebrants remained at the arms length from the commercial aspects of the wedding industry and that a “profit motive” not take precedence over the need to maintain legal and ethic integrity of providing a valid marriage.
This principle also was intended to ensure parity with the Religious celebrant who, under Section 33 of the Marriage Act, can be de-registered for “making a business of solemnising marriages for the purpose of profit or gain.”
The most contentious aspect of the 2003 changes was the “open market” basis on appointment, which does not operate for Subdivisions A and B celebrants. Existing celebrants concerns that this would flood the market with new inexperienced celebrants was dismissed as self-interested unfounded fears.
In the 2002 Explanatory Memorandum, Liberal Attorney General Daryl Williams stated,
Commonwealth celebrant numbers have not been contained by high pre-appointment training standards. The newly formed department to implement these changes has not focused upon its primary roles of performance reviews to conduct security checks upon applicants, to de-register celebrants who are non-compliant with their obligations under the Act and to ensure that Conflict of Interest provisions have been strictly enforced.
Instead the department spent time concentrating efforts on issuing legal ‘guidance’ whilst concurrently asserting this cannot be taken as “legal advice” and micro managing the ongoing professional development program, which should be the responsibility of the celebrant associations through a government sanctioned Standing Committee for OPD Approval and Monitoring.
With the fresh eyes of a new government and an independent review, Australia’s Marriage Act can and must be brought into the 21st century.
One nation, one marriage Act and one fair deal for all, whether couples choose a civil or religious ceremony, without the excesses of over-regulation and its associated costs on the community are essential.
The The Celebrants Network Inc as a member of the Coalition of Celebrant Associations will be calling upon the incoming government to undertake an independent review of the Commonwealth Marriage Celebrant program and the Australia’s Marriage Act 1961 to ensure that all marrying couples and their celebrants are treated with equal respect and same basic legal requirements for validity of civil marriage apply to everyone.